En esta sección encontrarás una selección de documentos que definen, guían y analizan las tecnologías que promovemos en Kawin, desde las explicaciones sencillas hasta las revisiones técnicas de las bases de los proyectos más revolucionarios sobre computación distribuida. La mayoría de los documentos internacionales están en inglés, sin embargo intentamos buscar las versiones en español apenas se publican y las vamos actualizando.

Explicaciones esenciales 

Aquí encontrarás los documentos que explican de manera clara y precisa los términos generales de las tecnologías con las que trabajamos.

Bits de Ciencia – Blockchain

Por Jens Hardings

Pocas veces hemos visto una tecnología que genera tanta expectativa como el Blockchain, la base sobre la cual pueden funcionar no sólo las criptomonedas, sino todo un ecosistema de
agentes autónomos y semiautónomos. Se ha dicho que eslo único parecido a Internet desde la Internet, en el sentido que hará a las finanzas lo que Internet hizo a los datos. (…)

zkSnarks in a Nutshell

thumbnail of zksnarksPor Christian Reitwießner


The possibilities of zkSNARKs are impressive, you can verify the correctness of computations without having to execute them and you will not even learn what was executed – just that it was done correctly. Unfortunately, most explanations of zkSNARKs resort to hand-waving at some point and thus they remain something ”magical”, suggesting that only the most enlightened actually understand how and why (and if?) they work.. (…)

La Tecnología Blockchain, una revolución modernizadora en marcha

Posé A. Bravo de Goyeneche
Jens Hardings Perl

Partiremos dando una explicación breve pero no superficial acerca del
origen y mecánica general de funcionamiento de la tecnología, los elementos
que la componen y su evolución. Luego analizaremos algunos de los atributos
propios y originales de la tecnología, indagando cuáles son los procesos o
entendimientos generales que cuestiona, tensiona o reemplaza.


Blockchain es mucho más que una base de datos, es una forma de redefinir las relaciones entre las personas.

An Introduction to Futarchy

thumbnail of An Introduction to Futarchy – Ethereum BlogPor Vitalik Buterin


One of the more interesting long-term practical benefits of the technology and concept behind decentralized autonomous organizations is that DAOs allow us to very quickly prototype and experiment with an aspect of our social interactions that is so far arguably falling behind our rapid advancements in information and social technology elsewhere: organizational governance. (…)

Socialism and the Blockchain

thumbnail of Future Internet _ Free Full-Text _ Socialism and the Blockchain _ HTMLSteve Huckle and Martin White


Bitcoin (BTC) is often cited as Libertarian. However, the technology underpinning Bitcoin, blockchain, has properties that make it ideally suited to Socialist paradigms. Current literature supports the Libertarian viewpoint by focusing on the ability of Bitcoin to bypass central authority and provide anonymity; rarely is there an examination of blockchain technology’s capacity for decentralised transparency and auditability in support of a Socialist model. This paper conducts a review of the blockchain, Libertarianism, and Socialist philosophies. (…)

DAOs, Democracy and Governance

thumbnail of Ralph Merkle-DAOdemocracyDraftRalph C. Merkle


Democracies are typically seen as governments which call upon the governed to make the major decisions of government: who shall lead, what policies to follow, what laws to enact. In all these  matters democracies call upon ordinary citizens to make complex decisions with eventful consequences. We do not call upon ordinary untrained citizens to perform surgery, fly airplanes, design computers, or carry out the other myriad tasks needed to keep society functioning, what makes governance different?

Shall We Vote on Values, But Bet on Beliefs?

thumbnail of ROBIN HANSON futarchy2013Ralph C. Merkle


Policy disputes arise at all scales of governance: in clubs, non-profits, firms, nations, and alliances of nations. Both the means and ends of policy are disputed. While many, perhaps most, policy disputes arise from conflicting ends, important disputes also arise from differing beliefs on how to achieve shared ends. In fact, according to many experts in economics and development, governments often choose policies that are “inefficient” in the sense that most everyone could expect to gain from other feasible policies. Many other kinds of experts also see existing policies as often clearly inferior to known alternatives.

DAO to automate governance

thumbnail of WhitePaper DAOChristoph Jentzsch


This paper describes the first implementation of Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) code to automate organizational governance and decision-making. The code can be used by individuals working together collaboratively outside of a traditional corporate form. It can also be used by a registered corporate entity to automate formal governance rules contained in corporate bylaws or imposed by law. First the DAO concept is described, then minority rights is discussed, and a solution to a “robbing the minority” attack vector is proposed. (…)

Rol de notarios y conservadores en el contexto tecnológico actual

thumbnail of SistemasRegistralesJens Hardings Perl

Blockchain como herramienta tecnológica desde una perspectiva de usuario

La desnacionalización del dinero

Friedrich A. Hayek

“El libro que aquí se presenta en lengua española es una obra que, aunque publicada por vez primera en 1976, se ha convertido ya en clásica. La desnacionalizació n del diner o es un importante y meditado alegato en favor de la libre competencia en la emisión y circulación de medios de pagos. Su objetivo es presentar el dinero como una mercancía que, de forma similar a los restantes bienes existentes en un mercado, puede ser suministrada con mayor eficiencia a la sociedad por el sector privado que por un monopolio estatal…”

Documentos Fundacionales

Bases completas de los proyectos basados en blockchain más importantes de la actualidad.

Ethereum Whitepaper

thumbnail of Ethereum white paperPor Dr. Gavin Wood


The blockchain paradigm when coupled with cryptographically-secured transactions has demonstrated its utility through a number of projects, not least Bitcoin. Each such project can be seen as a simple application on a decentralised, but singleton, compute resource. We can call this paradigm a transactional singleton machine with shared-state. Ethereum implements this paradigm in a generalised manner. Furthermore it provides a plurality of such resources, each with a distinct state and operating code but able to interact through a message-passing framework with others. We discuss its design, implementation issues, the opportunities it provides and the future hurdles we envisage. (…)

Bitcoin Whitepaper

thumbnail of White-paper-bitcoinPor Satoshi Nakamoto


A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. (…)

Zerocash: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from Bitcoin

thumbnail of zerocash-extended-20140518Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green,
Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza


Bitcoin is the first digital currency to see widespread adoption. Although payments are conducted between pseudonyms, Bitcoin cannot offer strong privacy guarantees: payment transactions are recorded in a public decentralized ledger, from which much information can be deduced. Zerocoin (Miers et al., IEEE S&P 2013) tackles some of these privacy issues by unlinking transactions from the payment’s origin. Yet it still reveals payment destinations and amounts, and is limited in functionality. In this paper, we construct a full-fledged ledger-based digital currency with strong privacy guarantees. Our results leverage recent advances in zero-knowledge Succinct Non-interactive ARguments of Knowledge (zk-SNARKs). (…)

Documentos Organismos Internacionales

Documentos emitidos por organismos internacionales acerca de los alcances y proyecciones de la computación distribuida en la política y los mercados globales.

Realizing the Potential of Blockchain

thumbnail of WEF_Realizing_Potential_BlockchainDon Tapscott and Alex Tapscott


Distributed ledger technology promises to have far-reaching economic and social implications. By leveraging a global peer network to assure directly and transparently the integrity of value  exchanged between parties, blockchain appears likely to transform a number of important industries that supply or rely upon third-party assurance. It could prove to be a broader force for transparency and integrity in society, including in the fight against bribery and corruption. It could also lead to extensive changes in supply chains and governmental functions, such as central banking. (…)

Proxy voting on distributed ledger

thumbnail of gm_proxy_votingCSD Working Group on DLT in collaboration with


This document aims to provide a set of requirements encompassing all major needs of voting on general shareholder meetings, addressing problems present in the current voting systems. These requirements are designed to be independent of any market as much as possible and are extensible, supporting further customization. (…)

Implications of fintech developments for banks

thumbnail of Sound PracticesBank for International Settlements


Interest is growing in financial technology, or “fintech”. In recent years, sizeable investments have been made by both banks and venture capital funds, indicating the expectations for substantial change. Against this backdrop, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) has set up a task force to provide insight into this development, and more specifically to explore the implications for supervisors and banks’ business models. This consultative document summarises the BCBS’s main findings and conclusions.. (…)

Technology Tipping Points and Societal Impact

thumbnail of WEF_GAC15_Technological_Tipping_Points_report_2015World Economic Forum, Global Agenda Council on the Future of Software & Society


Software has the potential to drastically change our lives. Earlier this year, the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on the Future of Software and Society set out to help people prepare for changes enabled by software. We found 21 examples of these that will have farreaching impacts on human health, the environment, global commerce and international relations. (…)

The future of financial infrastructure

thumbnail of WEF_The_future_of_financial_infrastructureWorld Economic Forum, Part of the Future of Financial Services Series • August 2016


An ambitious look at how blockchain can reshape financial services.

Fintech and sustainable development

thumbnail of Fintech_and_Sustainable_Development_Assessing_the_ImplicationsUNEP – Juan Carlos Castilla-Rubio, Simon Zadek and Nick Robins


Finance is a system in constant flux. At present, the financial system is in both turmoil and transition. The financial crisis and its aftermath caused enormous turmoil and led to an extended period of low growth and instability across the international political economy. Transition of the financial system is in part driven by this turmoil, through policy and regulatory drivers, and heightened the influence of emerging nations in shaping global finance.

Building the hyperconected future on blockchains

thumbnail of WGS_Blockchain_EN_WebWorld Government Summit


This report hopes to bring the World Government Summit a fresh perspective on the current state of blockchain technology. The report explores how the blockchain will drive positive changes in nearly every area of civic life over the next ten years. Both national and municipal governments will realise these benefits as they adapt and adopt these technologies to meet diverse requirements, smoothly integrating into the technological fabric which supports and serves their citizens.
The blockchain is a bold new innovation that will bring this reliability and trust into every walk of life.

Distributed Ledger Technology & Cybersecurity – Improving information security in the financial sector

European Union Agency For Network And Information Security


This paper aims to provide financial professionals in both business and technology roles with an assessment of the various benefits and challenges that their institutions may encounter when implementing a distributed ledger.

The Impact of Digital Innovation and Blockchain on the Music Industry

Ignacio De Leon – Ravi Gupta


This paper assesses the ability of the distributed ledger technology to steer the industry toward a distributed model and its potential to drastically alter the entire music supply chain. It initiates a conversation about policy implications and how policymakers might address the issues related to adopting blockchain technology, including designing policies that support an environment that enables the well-deserved compensation of artists.

Datos, algoritmos y políticas: La redefinición del mundo digital

Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL)

En este libro se revisan tres conjuntos de temas: en primer lugar se describen esas trayectorias tecnológicas.En segundo lugar, se analizan dos elementos habilitantes de su uso: las plataformas digitales globales y la formación de recursos humanos calificados para operar tecnologías digitales avanzadas, sobre la base de información reciente correspondiente a siete países latinoamericanos (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México, Perú y Uruguay). Luego, se analiza el impacto de esas y otras tecnologías digitales en dos dimensiones verticales: la manufactura y los servicios avanzados, y las empresas de tecnología financiera digital (fintech); en estas últimas se presta especial atención a los servicios que pueden proveer a las empresas de menor tamaño, aumentando la inclusión financiera. Se concluye con el análisis de las implicancias de la  inteligencia artificial para el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.

Documentos Gubernamentales

Documentos emitidos por países que están en proceso de estudio o implementación de tecnologías de computación distribuida a nivel de políticas de gobierno.

Project Ubin: SGD on Distributed Ledger

thumbnail of Singapore.Project Ubin SGD on Distributed LedgerMonetary Authority of Singapore


The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) is pleased to present the report “Project Ubin:
SGD on Distributed Ledger”. This report will serve as an introduction to Distributed Ledger
Technology (DLT), and provide an understanding of the prototype developed in Project
Ubin for inter-bank payments using DLT. (…)

The Future of FinTech in Hong Kong

thumbnail of Hong Kong FSDC Paper_FinTech_EHK Financial Services Development Council


Financial Technology, more commonly referred to as FinTech, looks set to reshape the
financial sector in the coming years and present Hong Kong with both challenges and
opportunities. By taking proactive steps, Hong Kong could become the leading FinTech
centre within the region and one of the leading centres in the world. A less proactive
approach could cede business and employment to rival centres elsewhere. (…)

Hong Kong – Building Trust Using DLT

thumbnail of FSDC Paper_DLT_EHK Financial Services Development Council


Blockchain’s proposition is of a ledger which is distributed rather than centralised. This simple-sounding innovation has fundamental implications, including the potential to transform financial services as well as many other areas of activity. Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is still at a nascent stage; nonetheless, its proposition is so compelling that a number of other jurisdictions are investing in it now in order to carve out a role for themselves in a future DLT-enabled world. Hong Kong, with its large financial sector and its strategic role vis-à-vis Mainland China and the world, has the potential to take on an important role in DLT. (…)

The macroeconomics of central bank issued digital currencies

thumbnail of The macroeconomics of central bankJohn Barrdear and Michael Kumhof


We study the macroeconomic consequences of issuing central bank digital currency (CBDC) — a universally accessible and interest-bearing central bank liability, implemented via distributed ledgers, that competes with bank deposits as medium of exchange. In a DSGE model calibrated to match the pre-crisis United States, we find that CBDC issuance of 30% of GDP, against government bonds,  could permanently raise GDP by as much as 3%, due to reductions in real interest rates, distortionary taxes, and monetary transaction costs. Countercyclical CBDC price or quantity rules, as a second monetary policy instrument, could substantially improve the central bank’s ability to stabilise the business cycle.

Documento Técnico sobre Criptomonedas

thumbnail of documento-tecnico-criptomonedasCarlos A. Arango-Arango y Joaquín F. Bernal-Ramírez


La economía global se está adaptando a nuevos desarrollos e innovaciones computacionales que cuentan con el potencial de transformar la manera en que se intercambian bienes, servicios y activos en la economía. Una de estas innovaciones son las criptomonedas (CM) operadas por agentes privados, las cuales facilitan la transferencia de riqueza sin la necesidad de sistemas centralizados de emisión, registro, compensación y liquidación. (…)

Este documento describe qué son las CM y su tecnología subyacente, y presenta los beneficios, costos, riesgos y oportunidades asociados con dichas plataformas. De esta manera, se identifican los principales retos de política pública en esta materia.

Hong Kong – Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Risk Assessment Report



This assessment draws on extensive consultation, quantitative and qualitative data examination
and direct engagement with regulators, LEAs, government bodies and private sector entities.
The aim is to canvas and consolidate collective knowledge to develop a list of specific threats
or vulnerabilities that are the causes, sources or drivers of ML/TF risks in the context of Hong
Kong. (…)